When a government in a poorer country hands public money to their friends to provide public services, only to see them pocket the lion's share, we call it corruption. In Britain, we call it putting out to tender.
Frustrated by the conservatism of Britain's scientific establishment – and the growing popularity of eugenics – a group of radicals led by J. D. Bernal set out to harness science's capacities for social transformation.
In 1990, Asian rail workers who applied for positions as drivers on British Rail found themselves frozen out in favour of less-qualified white colleagues. They fought back – and won a landmark battle.